In the following chess position reached at ICC via the Catalan Opening, Black just played Be6 which pins the c4 Knight to the white pawn at a2. Earlier in the game Black offered an exchange of Queens at f5 which, perhaps, may have been a reasonable middle game decision, BUT as the game develops turned out to be a horrible endgame choice.
White’s King is closer to the center and after d5 White is the proud owner of a 3 to 2 Queen side majority that can not be compromised. Also note that White’s three King side pawns restrains Black’s 4 crippled King side pawns. The net effect is that White effectively has an extra pawn which increases in value as piece swaps happen and chess game approaches pure King and Pawn ending.
It may be a little bold to claim that the first player has a winning advantage due to his pawn majority on the Queen side, but In GM versus GM competition White would probably win this type of position 80% of the time.