The following test results published in a Manila Times article by Jayson C. Luna relates to the statistical notion of a P-Value which measures the rarity of an event. The article revealed that the CPA board licensure exam had a national pass percentage of 34.
Contrast that percentage with the pass percentage of 56 reported for University of Makati students who took the CPA board licensure exam. This result definitely qualifies as a very rare event given the national average was 34%.
The distribution of proportions is centered at 34% and is bell shaped(normal distribution). The P-Value for an outcome of 56% is around 0.001 or one tenth of a percent. Put a little more simply, how the UMak students performed on CPA exam would happen 1 in 1000 times given that the national average was 34%.
If you are scratching your head or stroking your chin, you should be. Such a low P-Value constitutes very strong proof that the UMak students had preknowledge regarding what type of questions were on the exam. Certainly one might also conclude that the accounting professors at UMak are significantly better teachers than their counterparts at other Universities in the Philippines. This would beg the question as to why the best accounting profs are concentrated at UMak. Is the pay much higher at Umak so as to attract the best of the best teachers?
Ask any tenured Statistics professor at UMak about how low P-Values are strong proof against some claim. The truth may hurt here.